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Buds and flowers of Boerhavia diffusa …Hoa và nụ hoa của cây Nam sâm bò, Sâm đất …
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Nam sâm bò, Sâm đất, Sâm quy đầu.
English names : Pigweed, Hogweed, Red Spiderling, Spreading Hogweed, Wineflower
Scientist name : Boerhavia diffusa L.
Synonyms : Boerhavia repens L.
Family : Nyctaginaceae. Họ Bông Phấn
Searched from :
Sâm đất, Sâm nam, Sâm rừng, Sâm quy bầu – Boerhavia diffusa L. (B. repens L.), thuộc họ Hoa phấn – Nyctaginaceae.
Mô tả: Cỏ nằm rồi đứng, sống dai. Rễ mập, hình thoi. Thân mọc toả ra sát đất, màu đỏ nhạt. Lá mọc đối, có cuống, phiến xoan tròn dài hay hình bánh bò, mép lượn sóng, mặt dưới có nhiều lông màu trắng lục. Cụm hoa chùm mang xim 3 hoa không cuống. Các nhánh hoa có nhiều lông tròn dính vào quần áo. Hoa màu đỏ tía, có 1-2 nhị. Quả hình trụ, phồng ở đầu, có lông dính.
Ra hoa kết quả quanh năm, chủ yếu tháng 4-6.
Bộ phận dùng: Rễ và lá – Radix et Folium Boerhaviae Diffusae.
Nơi sống và thu hái: Loài liên nhiệt đới, mọc hoang khắp nơi, ở vườn, sân, bờ đường hay bãi cỏ… Thu hái rễ, lá quanh năm, đào rễ (tốt nhất vào mùa thu) và rửa sạch, phơi hay sấy khô.
Thành phần hoá học: Trong rễ có 0,01% một chất alcaloid có hoạt tính là punarnavine; alcaloid tổng số trong rễ là 0,04%; còn có một chất thơm, tinh bột, chất gôm, một chất dầu bay hơi, nitrat kalium.
Tính vị, tác dụng: Rễ có tác dụng lợi tiểu, nhuận tràng, làm long đờm, làm tăng lượng nước tiểu, nhưng với liều cao, có thể gây nôn mửa và làm ra nhiều mồ hôi. Nó có tác dụng vào hệ thần kinh như một tác nhân chống co giật. Lá có tác dụng hoạt huyết, giải độc.
Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Ðược dùng chữa hen suyễn, đau dạ dày, phù thũng, thiếu máu, vàng da, cổ trướng, phù toàn thân, tiểu ít, táo bón thường xuyên, các bệnh về gan và lá lách; còn dùng trị viêm nhiễm bên trong và trị nọc độc rắn. Lá được dùng trị sang độc.
Liều dùng 10-15g, dạng thuốc sắc hay thuốc hãm. Có thể tán bột uống. Có thể pha uống như trà (10g trong 1 lít nước sôi) nếu pha rượu thì chỉ dùng liều 2-5g bột rễ trong 1 ngày.
Species: diffusa, hirsuta
Synonyms: Boerhavia adscendens, B. caribaea, B. coccinea, B. erecta, B. paniculata, B. repens, B.viscosa
Common Names: Erva tostão, erva toustao, pega-pinto, hog weed, pig weed, atikamaamidi, biskhapra, djambo, etiponia, fowl’s lice, ganda’dar, ghetuli, katkatud, mahenshi, mamauri, ndandalida, oulouni niabo, paanbalibis, patal-jarh, pitasudu-pala, punar-nava, punerva, punarnava, purnoi, samdelma, san sant, santh, santi, satadi thikedi, satodi, spreading hog weed, tellaaku, thazhuthama, thikri, touri-touri, tshrana
Part Used: whole herb, roots
Erva tostão is called punarnava in India, where it has a long history of use by indigenous and tribal people and in Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems.
TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES
The roots of erva tostão have held an important place in herbal medicine in both Brazil and India for many years. G. L. Cruz, one of Brazil’s leading medical herbalists, reports erva tostão is “a plant medicine of great importance, extraordinarily beneficial in the treatment of liver disorders.” It is employed in Brazilian herbal medicine to stimulate the emptying of the gallbladder, as a diuretic, for all types of liver disorders (including jaundice and hepatitis), gallbladder pain and stones, urinary tract disorders, renal disorders, kidney stones, cystitis, and nephritis. In Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems in India, the roots are employed as a diuretic, digestive aid, laxative, and menstrual promoter and to treat gonorrhea, internal inflammation of all kinds, edema, jaundice, menstrual problems, anemia, and liver, gallbladder, and kidney disorders. Throughout the tropics, erva tostão is considered an excellent natural remedy for guinea worms — a bothersome tropical parasite that lays its eggs underneath the skin of humans and livestock; the eggs later hatch into larvae or worms that eat the underlying tissue. The roots of the plant are normally softened in boiling water and then mashed up and applied as a paste or poultice to the affected areas to kill the worms and expel them from the skin.
Novel plant chemicals have been found in erva tostão, including flavonoids, steroids, and alkaloids, many of which drive its documented biological activities. The novel alkaloids found in erva tostão have been documented with immune modulating effects. In one study, the alkaloid fraction of the root evidenced a dramatic effect in reducing an elevation of cortisol levels under stressful conditions (cortisol is an inflammatory chemical produced in the body in an immune response). Simultaneously, the alkaloids (and a whole root extract) also prevented a drop in immune system performance indicating an adaptogenic immune modulation activity, which might suggest it could be helpful in preventing adrenal exhaustion.
The main plant chemicals in this plant include: alanine, arachidic acid, aspartic acid, behenic acid, boeravinone A thru F, boerhaavic acid, borhavine, borhavone, campesterol, daucosterol, ecdysone, flavones, galactose, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, hentriacontane, heptadecyclic acid, histidine, hypoxanthine, liriodendrin, oleaic acid, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, proline, punarnavine, serine, sitosterols, stearic acid, stigmasterol, syringaresinol, threonine, triacontan, ursolic acid, and valine.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH
Erva tostão has long been used in traditional medicine systems as a diuretic (to increase urination) for many types of kidney and urinary disorders. The diuretic action of erva tostão has been studied and validated by scientists in several studies. Researchers showed that low dosages (10–300 mg per kg of body weight) produced strong diuretic effects, while higher dosages (more than 300 mg/kg) produced the opposite effect—reducing urine output. Later research verified these diuretic and antidiuretic properties, as well as the beneficial kidney and renal effects of erva tostão in animals and humans. Research indicates that a root extract can increase urine output by as much as 100 percent in a twenty-four-hour period at dosages as low as 10 mg per kg of body weight.
The worldwide use of erva tostão for various liver complaints and disorders was validated in three separate studies. These indicated that a root extract provided beneficial effects in animals by protecting the liver from numerous introduced toxins and even repairing chemical-induced liver and kidney damage. In other clinical studies with animals, erva tostão extracts demonstrated smooth muscle and skeletal muscle stimulant activities in frogs and guinea pigs; anti-inflammatory actions in rats; hypotensive actions in dogs as well as in vitro hypotensive actions; antispasmodic actions in frogs and guinea pigs; analgesic activities in mice; and antiamebic actions in rats. In two studies with monkeys, a root extract was reported to reduce bleeding and uterine hemorrhaging commonly associated with wearing contraceptive IUDs. The traditional use of erva tostão for convulsions was verified by scientists in two studies, demonstrating that a root extract provided anticonvulsant actions in mice. In vitro testing of erva tostão confirmed its antibacterial properties against gonorrhea (another traditional use), as well as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It was also shown to possess antiviral actions against several viral plant pathogens.
CURRENT PRACTICAL USES
Many of these animal studies help to explain erva tostão’s long history of different uses in natural medicine. Clearly, it has played an important role in the herbal practitioner’s medicine chest of natural remedies for many maladies in both South America and India. It is an effective natural remedy, especially for the liver and kidneys, which is deserving of much more attention and use here in the United States. Several research groups studying various biological activities of erva tostão have shown the safety of the plant — indicating no toxicity of root and leaf extracts taken orally by mice at up to 5 g per kg of body weight. Another group of scientists studied the effects of erva tostão on pregnant rats and reported that it had no abortive effects and no embryotoxic or teratogenic (fetal death or birth defect) activity.
ERVA TOSTÃO PLANT SUMMARY
Main Preparation Method: decoction or capsules
Main Actions (in order):
hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), antilithic (prevents or eliminates kidney stones), hepatoprotective (liver protector), diuretic, menstrual stimulant
for liver disorders (jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, anemia, flukes, detoxification, chemical injury, etc)
for gallbladder disorders (stones, sluggish function, low bile production, emptying, and detoxification)
for kidney and urinary tract disorders (stones, nephritis, urethritis, infections, renal insufficiency/injury, etc)
for menstrual disorders (pain, cramps, excessive bleeding, uterine spasms, water retention)
to tone, balance, and strengthen the adrenals (and for adrenal exhaustion and excess cortisol production
Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
ACE-inhibitor (typically lowers blood pressure), analgesic (pain-reliever), anti-inflammatory, antiamebic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antihemorrhagic (reduces bleeding), antispasmodic, antiviral, liver and gallbladder bile stimulant, diuretic, hepatoprotective (liver protector), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), immune modulator (selectively lowers overactive immune cells)
Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
antihistamine, antilithic (prevents or eliminates kidney stones), aperient (mild laxative), blood cleanser, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), carminative (expels gas), detoxifier, digestive stimulant, kidney tonic (tones, balances, strengthens the kidneys), lactagogue (promotes milk flow), menstrual stimulant, uterine stimulant, vermifuge (expels worms)
Traditional Preparation: For a general liver tonic, 1 cup of a whole herb or root decoction or 2 ml of a 4:1 tincture is taken once daily. This same dosage is taken two to three times daily for various liver and kidney disorders. For a natural diuretic, 500 mg of the root in capsules or tablets can be taken twice daily. As a menstrual aid (to reduce menstrual pain, cramping, and excessive bleeding) 1 cup of a whole herb or root decoction or 1–2 g in tablets or capsules can be taken two to three times daily as needed. See Traditional Herbal Remedies Preparation Methods page if necessary for definitions.
Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the hypotensive properties of erva tostão. Those with heart problems such as low blood pressure, or those taking medications to lower their blood pressure should not use this plant without the advice and supervision of a qualified health care practitioner as blood pressure levels should be monitored closely.
This herb has also demonstrated myocardial depressant activity and should therefore not be taken by anyone with heart failure or those taking heart depressant medications unless under the direction and care of a qualified health care practitioner.
Drug Interactions: Erva tostão may interfere with prescription diuretics and may potentiate cardiac depressant medications. Erva tostão has been documented in one in vitro study to have angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition action. Therefore, this plant may potentiate ACE inhibitor drugs for high blood pressure.
In one study, an oral dosage of 500 mg/kg (leaf extract) in mice inhibited barbiturates and decreased sleeping time. Therefore, the use of this plant may decrease the effect of barbiturates.
WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
Brazilfor albuminuria, beri-beri, bile insufficiency, cystitis, edema, gallbladder problems, gallstones, gonorrhea, guinea worms, hepatitis, hypertension, jaundice, kidney disorders, kidney stones, liver disorders, liver support, nephritis, renal disorders, sclerosis (liver), snakebite, spleen (enlarged), urinary disorders, urinary retention
Guatemalafor erysipelas, guinea worms
Indiafor abdominal pain, anemia, ascites, asthma, blood purification, cancer, cataracts, childbirth, cholera, constipation, cough, debility, digestive sluggishness, dropsy, dyspepsia, edema, eye problems, fever, gonorrhea, guinea worms, heart ailments, heart disease, hemorrhages (childbirth), hemorrhages (thoracic), hemorrhoids, inflammation (internal), internal parasites, jaundice, kidney disorders, kidney stones, lactation aid, liver disorders, liver support, menstrual disorders, renal insufficiency, rheumatism, snakebite, spleen (enlarged), urinary disorders, weakness, and as a diuretic and expectorant
Iranfor edema, gonorrhea, hives, intestinal gas, jaundice, joint pain, lumbago, nephritis, and as an appetite stimulant, diuretic and expectorant
Nigeriafor abscesses, asthma, boils, convulsions, epilepsy, fever, guinea worms, and as an expectorant and laxative
West Africafor abortion, guinea worms, menstrual irregularities, and as an aphrodisiac
Elsewherefor childbirth, guinea worms, jaundice, sterility, yaws
Importance of Boerhavia diffusa in Traditional and Ethnological Healthcare Systems
Tokyo – Asakusa: Sensō-ji – Tsukubai
Image by wallyg
A tsukabai (蹲踞) is a small water basin provided in Japanese Buddhist temples for visitors to purify themselves by the ritual washing of hands and rinsing of the mouth.
Kinryū-zan Sensō-ji (金龍山浅草寺), or Sensō-ji, also known as Asakusa Kannon Temple, is a Buddhist temple—the oldest temple in Tokyo. Legend says that in the year 628, the brothers Hinokuma Hamanari and Hinokuma Takenari, two fisherman, found a statue dedicated to the bodhisattva Kannon, also known as Guan Yin or the Goddess of Mercy, out of the Sumida River. Even though they put the statue back into the river, it always returned to them. Their master, Hajino Nakamoto, recognizing the sanctity of the statue, enshrined it in his house, and then in 645 the holy man Shokai built the first temple on this location. In the early years of the Tokugawa shogunate, Tokugawa Ieyasu designated Sensō-ji as tutelary temple of the Tokugawa clan. During World War II, the temple was bombed and for the most part, destroyed. It was rebuilt later and is a symbol of rebirth and peace to the Japanese people.